October 7
After Freedom: Black Boston’s Fight for Civil Rights 1865-1900
Kerri Greenidge, ABD, Boston University

1.An Open Letter to President McKinley by Colored People of Massachusetts, Boston, MA 1899 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/lcrbmrp.t1722
2.Atlanta Exposition Speech by Booker T. Washington, September 18, 1895 Atlanta, GA http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/39/
3.“Address to the First National Conference of Colored Women” by Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin February 1, 1895 http://www.blackpast.org/?q=1895-josephine-st-pierre-ruffin-address-first-national-conference-colored-women
4.“Boston’s Color Line” Cleveland Gazette February 1, 1896 http://dbs.ohiohistory.org/africanam/page1.cfm?ItemID=18476

1.What does Washington mean by his famous phrase “as separate as the fingers but one as the hand”? How does Washington conceptualize citizenship?
2.What do the signers of the open letter to McKinley see as the role of the federal government in ensuring American citizenship?
3.What does the article “Boston’s Color Line,” illustrate about citizenship for African-Americans in Boston?
4.Contrast the sentiments of Josephine Ruffin in her “Address to the First National Conference of Colored Women” with the address of Booker T. Washington in Atlanta. How does Ruffin’s notion of citizenship differ from Washington’s? How are their notions of citizenship the same?

Download a PDF copy of Greenidge's PowerPoint presentation. 2.2 MB

Online Sources